Conceptual containment[ edit ] The philosopher Immanuel Kant uses the terms "analytic" and "synthetic" to divide propositions into two types. There, he restricts his attention to statements that are affirmative subject - predicate judgments and defines "analytic proposition" and "synthetic proposition" as follows:
Philosophical roots[ edit ] Diogenes Cosmopolitanism can be traced back to Diogenes of Sinope c. Of Diogenes it is said: The Stoics, who later took Diogenes' idea and developed it, typically stressed that each human being "dwells [ The task of world citizens becomes then to "draw the circles somehow towards the centre, making all human beings more like our fellow city dwellers, and so forth".
Kant there claimed that the expansion of hospitality with regard to "use of the right to the earth's surface which belongs to the human race in common" see common heritage of humanity would "finally bring the human Immanuel kant paper essay ever closer to a cosmopolitan constitution".
For Levinas, the foundation of ethics consists in the obligation to respond to the Other. In Being for the Other, he writes that there is no "universal moral law," only the sense of responsibility goodness, mercy, charity that the Other, in a state of vulnerability, calls forth.
The proximity of the Other is an important part of Levinas's concept: For Derrida, the foundation of ethics is hospitality, the readiness and the inclination to welcome the Other into one's home.
Ethics, he claims, is hospitality. Pure, unconditional hospitality is a desire that underscores the conditional hospitality necessary in our relationships with others. Levinas's and Derrida's theories of ethics and hospitality hold out the possibility of an acceptance of the Other as different but of equal standing.
Isolation is not a feasible alternative in the world, therefore, it is important to consider how best to approach these interactions, and to determine what is at stake for ourselves and the others: Further, both theories reveal the importance of considering how best to interact with the Other and others, and what is at stake.
Derrida in an interview with Bennington summarized "cosmopolitanism",  There is a tradition of cosmopolitanism, and if we had time we could study this tradition, which comes to us from, on the one hand, Greek thought with the Stoics, who have a concept of the 'citizen of the world'.
You also have St. Paul in the Christian tradition, also a certain call for a citizen of the world as, precisely, a brother. Paul says that we are all brothers, that is sons of God, so we are not foreigners, we belong to the world as citizens of the world; and it is this tradition that we could follow up until Kant for instance, in whose concept of cosmopolitanism we find the conditions for hospitality.
But in the concept of the cosmopolitical in Kant there are a number of conditions: Derrida cited in Bennington A Discussion with Jacques Derrida. A further state of cosmopolitanism occurred after the Second World War.
As a reaction to the Holocaust and the other massacres, the concept of crimes against humanity became a generally accepted category in international law. This clearly shows the appearance and acceptance of a notion of individual responsibility that is considered to exist toward all of humankind.
The boundaries between nations, states, cultures or societies are therefore morally irrelevant. A widely cited example of a contemporary cosmopolitan is Kwame Anthony Appiah. Globalizationa more common term, typically refers more narrowly to the economic and trade relations and misses the broader cultural, social, political, environmental, demographic, values and knowledge transitions taking place.
Contemporary cosmopolitan thinkers[ edit ] This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you can. February Learn how and when to remove this template message A number of contemporary theorists propose, directly and indirectly, various ways of becoming or being a cosmopolitan individual.
Thich Nhat Hanh discusses what he calls "Interbeing" as a way of living one's life in relation to others; "Interbeing" might easily be compared to cosmopolitanism. Nhat Hanh's philosophical beliefs are grounded in the precepts of Buddhist teachings, which involve compassion and understanding to protect and live in harmony with all people, animals, plants, and minerals.
Therefore, to be responsible is to recognize and understand suffering, which then leads to compassion. It is through this process that others can be recognized as people. Other theorists, philosophers, and activists contend that recognizing suffering is necessary to end violence.
In Scared SacredVelcrow Ripper takes a journey to different sites of great suffering that ultimately leads him toward developing compassion. It is the deconstruction of these ideologies that can lead to the compassion and humanization of others.
Thus individual responsibility is being aware of what Judith Butler calls the precariousness of life in self and other; being a cosmopolitan seems to be, above all, a social, ethical enterprise.
Ethics in a World of Strangers, Kwame Anthony Appiah notices something important about how social ethics seem to operate: Whatever obligation one might have to another, especially a foreign other, that obligation does not supersede the obligations one has to those people most familiar to them.
However, as Judith Butler questions, "at what cost do I establish the familiar as the criterion" for valuing others? Paul Gilroy offers a possible alternative to this emphasis on familiarity arguing that "methodical cultivation of a degree of estrangement from one's own culture and history For Gilroy, being cosmopolitan seems to involve both a social, ethical enterprise and a cultural enterprise.
Both Hurndall and Corrie removed themselves geographically from their home cultures, presumably both physically and mentally estranging themselves from their own cultures and histories.The Categorical Imperative which was initially described by Immanuel Kant is the theory that a person is to "act only on the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law" (O'Neill, , p).
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Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. The highest ideals of Locke, Hume and Kant were first proposed more than a century earlier by an Ethiopian in a cave.
There are two basic types of summaries: a reader summary, that you compose to develop a better understanding of what you have read, or a summary essay, which is written for others and is an overview of an original text. - Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant was born on April 22, in Konigsberg, East Prussia.
He was the son of a saddler. At age 8, he entered the Collegium Fredericianum, a Latin school, where he remained for 8 . Immanuel Kant, one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western philosophy, in his famous work Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals discusses the idea of goodwill and how it can be attained though duty.