What Is an Information System? Dave Bourgeois and David T. Bourgeois Learning Objectives Upon successful completion of this chapter, you will be able to:
Components of an Information System Components of an Information System A system is a set of components subsystems that operate together to achieve certain objectives.
The objectives of a system are realized in its outputs. An information system is a system that accepts data resources as input and processes them into information products as output. An information system depends on the resources of people end users and IS specialistshardware machines and mediasoftware programs and proceduresdata data and knowledge basisand networks communications media and network support to perform input, processing, output, storage, and control activities that convert data resources into information products.
This information system model highlights the relationships among the components and activities of information systems. It provides a framework that emphasizes four major concepts that can be applied to all types of information systems: People, hardware, software, data, and networks are the five basic resources of information systems.
People resources include end users and IS specialists, hardware resources consist of machines and media, software resources include both programs and procedures, data resources can include data and knowledge bases, and network resources include communications media and networks.
Data resources are transformed by information processing activities into a variety of information products for end users. Information processing consists of input, processing, output, storage, and control activities. Information System Resources 1.
People Resources People are required for the operation of all information systems. These people resources include end users and IS specialists. End users also called users or clients are people who use an information system or the information it produces.
They can be accountants, salespersons, engineers, clerks, customers, or managers. Most of us are information system end users.
IS Specialists are people who develop and operate information systems. They include systems analysts, programmers, computer operators, and other managerial technical, and clerical IS personnel. Briefly, systems analysts design information systems based on the information requirements of end uses, programmers prepare computer programs based on the specifications of systems analysts, and computer operators operate large computer systems.
Hardware Resources The concept of Hardware resources includes all physical devices and materials used in information processing.
Specially, it includes not only machines, such as computers and other equipment, but also all data media, that is, all tangible objects on which data is recorded, from sheets of paper to magnetic disks.
Example of hardware in computer-based information systems are: Computer systems, which consist of central processing units containing microprocessors, and variety of interconnected peripheral devices.
Examples are microcomputer systems, midrange computer systems, and large mainframe computer systems. Computer peripherals, which are devices such as a keyboard or electronic mouse for input of data and commands, a video screen or printer for output of information, and magnetic or optical disks for storage of data resources.
Software Resources The concept of Software Resources includes all sets of information processing instructions. This generic concept of software includes not only the sets of operating instructions called programs, which direct and control computer hardware, but also the sets of information processing instructions needed by people, called procedures.
This is true even for the information systems of ancient times, or the manual and machine-supported information systems still used in the world today. They all require software resources in the form of information processing instructions and procedures in order to properly capture, process, and disseminate information to their users.
The following are the examples of software resources: System Software, such as an operating system program, which con controls and supports the operations of a computer system. Application Software, which are programs that direct processing for a particular use of computers by end users.
Examples are a sales analysis program, a payroll program, and a work processing program. Procedures, which are operating instructions for the people who will use an information system.
Examples are instructions for filling out a paper form or using a software package.
Data Resources Data is more than the raw material of information systems. The concept of data resources has been broadened by managers and information systems professionals. They realize that data constitutes a valuable organization resource.
Thus, you should view data as data resources that must be managed effectively to benefit all end users in an organization. Data can take many forms, including traditional alphanumeric data, composed of numbers and alphabetical and other characters that describe business transactions and other events and entities.
Text data, consisting of sentences and paragraphs used in written communications; image data, such as graphic shapes and figures; and audio data, the human voice and other sounds, are also important forms of data. The data resources of information systems are typically organized into:An information system is integrated and co-ordinate network of components, which combine together to convert data into information.
Components of information systems An information system is essentially made up of five components hardware, software, database, network and people.
Information systems hardware is the part of an information system you can touch – the physical components of the technology. Computers, keyboards, disk drives, iPads, and flash drives are all examples of information systems hardware.
Information System and Its Components Posted on August 25, by John Dudovskiy Morley and Parker () define information system as a discipline that is formed from elements of business and computer science and is developing to form a separate area of scientific study. Jul 07, · Best Answer: The 5 components that must come together in order to produce a Computer-Based Information system are: mtb15.comre:The term hardware refers to mtb15.com category includes the computer itself, which is often referred to as the central processing unit (CPU), and all of its support mtb15.com: Resolved.
This information system model highlights the relationships among the components and activities of information systems.
It provides a framework that emphasizes four major concepts that can be applied to all types of information systems. Information System and Its Components Posted on August 25, by John Dudovskiy Morley and Parker () define information system as a discipline that is formed from elements of business and computer science and is developing to form a .