Water which is heated by the internal heat of the Earth is released from the vent.
Hydrothermal vent s are cracks in the ocean floor that emit jets of hot water loaded with minerals and bacteria. The vents range in diameter from less than an inch to mare than six feet. They are usually found at least a mile deep long the mid-ocean ridges.
So far, several dozen vent fields have been discovered. The first hydrothermal vent was discovered in by geologists on a research expedition in the Galapagos Rift off the coast of South America.
The Galapagos Rift is part of the mid-ocean ridge system. To understand vents it is helpful to first have Chemosynthesis black smokers understanding of these ridges and how new sea floor is formed.
A brief discussion follows. These plates include the crust and the top portion of the mantle. Together these two layers make up the lithospheretherefore the plates are referred to as lithospheric plate s. The plates can consist of ocean crust or continental crustor more often, a combination of the two.
Places where plates meet are called plate boundaries or plate margins. Convergent boundaries are places where plates come together.
Divergent boundaries are places where plates pull apart. How a vent forms At the mid-ocean ridges, a 46, mile mountain system that circles the globe under the oceans the longest mountain chain on the planetthe plates move apart during episodes of volcanic activity.
Magma rises up from the mantle and adds new sea floor to the separating plates. Fractures develop as the plates are pulled apart.
Cold sea water 2o C seeps into the fractures and is heated by the hot magma o C contained in shallow chambers under the sea floor. The superheated water is forced back up to the sea floor carrying dissolved minerals leached from the basalt ocean plate.
A vent forms when the jet of water shoots through the sea floor and its dissolved minerals begin to precipitate out. The minerals grow into a chimney, or " black smoker ".
Some vents produce "white smokers". The color depends on the minerals present in the water.
Growth continues as long as there is a supply of hydrothermal fluid. Vents have been located at depths varying from to meters. Life on a hydrothermal vent Primary producers: Green plants use sunlight to make food by the process of photosynthesis.
In the darkness of the ocean depths there is no sunlight for photosynthesis. So how do living things survive in such an environment? The answer is found in bacteria that can use another source of energy to make food.
Water coming out of a vent is rich not only in dissolved minerals but also in chemosynthetic bacteria. These bacteria are capable of utilizing sulfur compounds to produce organic material through the process of chemosynthesis.
The bacteria are autotrophs that oxidize hydrogen sulfide in vent water to obtain energy, which is used to produce organic material i.
Chemosynthetic bacteria are the primary producers and form the base of vent food webs. All vent animals ultimately depend on the bacteria for food.
How does a vent community develop? When a vent forms, new lava on the ocean floor around the vent becomes covered with a thick mat of bacteria. Soon tiny animals such as amphipods and copepods come to feed on the bacteria. Gradually, larger animals, including grazers, scavengers and predators join in colonizing the vent.
Scientists studying a field of vents since their formation in have observed a pattern of colonization. The first organisms to populate the vents are bacteria, then other microorganisms, including amphipods and copepods appear. These are followed by limpets snailsshrimp, crabs, tube worms, fish, and octopi.
Sometime later acorn worms, dandelion-like animals, and other species of shrimp and tube worms add to the expanding community.
In their most advanced stages vents are home to mussels, a variety of worms, anemones, and a large population of crabs, as well as many of the earlier colonists.Under the sea, hydrothermal vents may form features called black smokers. Relative to the majority of the deep sea, the areas around submarine hydrothermal vents are biologically more productive, often hosting complex communities fueled by the chemicals dissolved in the vent fluids.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart at spreading centers, ocean basins, and hotspots. Hydrothermal vents exist because the earth is both geologically active and has large amounts of water on its surface and within.
Massive sulphides deposits are currently forming in undersea locations characterized by “Black Smokers”. These Black Smokers are plumes of sulphide-rich fluids and represent the. Through chemosynthesis, it turns out. Vent species rely not on photons from the sun but on chemicals from the Earth's interior.
The pH of waters coming out of black smokers can be as low as 2. NATURA: AMORE: ARTE: ANIMALI: CITTÀ: NATALIZI: RICORRENZE: PAESAGGI: FIORI: VARIE: Conchiglie - Estate Per impostare come sfondo desktop: Cliccare sull'immagine con il tasto destro del mouse e seleziona "Imposta come sfondo".
Jul 14, · While exploring near the Galapagos Islands, the team of E/V Nautilus discovered a huge "black smoker" hydrothermal vent more than 10 meters tall billowing a.